ON-LINE INTRODUCTION TO GRADUATE STUDIES IN HUMAN RELATIONS LECTURE III
I tell you, sir, the only safeguard of order and discipline in the modern world is a standardized worker with interchangeable parts. That would solve the entire problem of management.
Jean Giraudoux (1882–1944), French diplomat, author. The President, in The Madwoman of Chaillot, act 1.
Human relations are important to the development and long-term sustainability of organizations. As I have previously mentioned, human relations, can be defined in many different ways. Many organizations and people see human relations from a completely different viewpoint. However, human relations in the work environment and from a management point of view can be classified into two main points as follows:
Industrial relations, or human relations which results from the meetings of management and workers.
The personal or human relationships which spring up, grow and exist in any work place environment.
As with the historical review of human relations in human service, it is important to understand the historical evolution of organizations and management because today's problems are basically the same. Some of our values may have changed, and hopefully we understand better what motivates workers, but we can still learn from the past.
From the beginning of civilization we have had managers who coped with:
1. Large groups of people and resources
2. Trying to develop theories about human behavior
3. Trying to be agents for change
4. Struggling with allocating scarce resources.
In the beginning management evolved because:
1. Something needed to be done (hunting, berry picking)
2. People recognized it was in their best interests to participate
3. Needed resources to work or fight
4. Activities needed to be coordinated
5. Leader needed to keep the group on course.
It can be deducted, that from earliest recorded times groups of people have been organized to work together towards planned goals. Their efforts coordinated and controlled to achieve such outcomes. Though the term scientific management did not come into being well into the Industrial Revolution (the latter half of the 19th century,) it's history is, on reflection, much longer than the term itself.
Consider the management skills required, by the ancient Egyptians to build their pyramids, by the ancient Chinese to build the Great Wall of China, the management skills of the Mesopotamians to irrigate their land and wall their cities, of the Romans when building their roads, aqueducts and Hadrian's Wall.
All these human-made constructions required large amounts of human effort and therefore organization i.e. planning, control and coordination.
The Great Pyramid for example is 75600 square feet at it's base, 480 feet high, and contains over 2 million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons. The base of the structure is only 7 inches from being a perfect square. All this with no computer, electronic calculator, modern materials handling equipment or advanced mathematical techniques/ models.
Scientific Management - Some earlier contributors?
The Chinese philosopher Mencius (372-289BC) dealt with conceptual models and systems familiar now under the term of production management techniques. He indicated the advantages of the division of labor. Records indicate that the ancient Greeks understood the advantages of, and practiced, uniform work methods. Their soldiers were instructed as to how their weapons and equipment should be laid out in case of a surprise attack. They also employed work songs to develop a rhythm, in order to achieve a smooth less fatiguing tempo, to improve productivity.
Sun Tzu, wrote an astounding piece of work "The Art of War." In his book, Sun Tzu acknowledged the need for inter-organizational communications, hierarchy and staff planning.
A little later, between 400-360 BC, Socrates and Aristotle, two Greek philosophers, wrote about the principles of management and the nature of executive power.
In the Middle East, around 1300 AD, Ibn Taymiyyah outlined an approach to administration using the scientific method in "The Principles of Religious Government."
In North America, for thousands of years, Native Americans used management principles and concepts in many areas, including forestry, fisheries, land use and government. For example, the Potlatch system required a complex set of management tools, including planning, organizing, monitoring, and regulating. (If you do not know what a potlatch is, look it up.)
Because American Indians had oral cultures, their management principles were passed down from generation to generation orally and through socialization, such as by the use of ceremonies.
Between 400-360 BC, Socrates and Aristotle wrote about the principles of management and the nature of executive power.
The division of labor was recognized by Plato (427—347BC). He wrote in The Republic, 'A man whose work is confined to such limited task must necessarily excel at it'
Ancient attitude to work
However, work itself was viewed by certainly the ancient Greeks and the Romans, as demeaning. Something to be avoided as it got in the way of more ideal pursuits, such as the arts, philosophy and military adventure. Therefore, those who could afford to do so employed slaves.
After the Fall of the Roman Empire
With the fall of the Roman Empire, development was curtailed; slavery being replaced by feudalism. In pre-Reformation Christian Europe work was also seen as a burden. A punishment for the sins of Adam and Eve, for which reward would be found in the hereafter. In this period, the mechanical clock, invented by Heinrich von Wych in Paris in 1370, and Guttenberg's printing press were key to all future developments in scientific management.
The former permitted accurate work measurement the latter the ability to communicate by the printed word. Indeed Guttenberg's inspired creative thinking can be viewed as an early example of method study. The story goes that Guttenberg, whilst at a wine festival, realized he could apply the technique of using dies for coin-punching with the mechanics of a wine press, to produce a printed page, made up of individual letters instead of from a single engraved block. In 1436 a Spanish visitor to the Arsenal of Venice reported:
"And as one enters the gate there is a great street on either
hand with the sea in the middle, and on one side are
windows opening out of the house of the arsenal, and the
same on the other side, and out came a galley towed by a
boat, and from the windows they handed out to them, from
one the cardage, from another the ballistics and mortars,
and so from all sides everything which was required, and
when the galley had reached the end of the street all the men
required were on board, together with the complement of
oars, and she was equipped from end to end. In this manner
there came out ten galleys, fully armed, between the hours of
three and nine."
The Spanish visitor had witnessed a production line, around 500 years before Henry Ford. The Arsenal of Venice also used standardized parts. The bows of the warships had to accommodate all types of arrows, stern parts to accommodate all types of rudders and rigging. The deck parts had to be interchangeable. This was also an earlier form of waste control. Wrecked vessels could be cannibalized.
This productivity improving method of manufacturing of galleys presupposes some sort of work measurement and method study prior to the establishment of the facility. Plus, the desire to improve productivity in line with a real need to do so i.e. reduce costs, competition, protect, maintain or improve competitiveness etc.
Fifteenth century monks recorded the overall times for the construction of monastery stonework. Such records suggest an attempt, even in those early times, to establish standards of quality, time and output.
In 1532, Niccolo Machiavelli, wrote The Prince" which discussed realistic guidelines for the use of power. Introduced the term “the end justifies the means”. The term "Machiavellian" is used today to describe a ruthless way of getting and keeping power.
In the 1700s, the Industrial Revolution started. In the late 19th century, with the explosion of industry came a wave of management theories. Based upon the Western view that humans can control the world through reasoning and science, classical management theory was the first of the organizational theories that would evolve into the 20th and 21st century.
In 1776 Adam Smith "Wealth of Nations" emphasized division of labor, specialization & profit as the keys to private enterprise
In 1800 Eli Whitney with invention of Cotton Gin comes Interchangability of parts, cost accounting, quality control.
In 1832 Charles Babbage was the first to study management scientifically. He identified division of labor as key, demonstrated world’s first mechanical calculator and is known as the Father of Computers.
With the Reformation the Protestant 'work ethic' emerged based on Luther's glorification of work theory. Calvinism brought further consolidation to this principle and with it the virtues of thrift, frugality and the honorable acquisition of wealth.
Some would claim that to begin to understand our organizations today we need to look at the Protestant Reformation and the Protestant Ethic. A new ethic began to evolve, an ethic that shifted the orientation of one's life from the "next world" to this world. This ethic is best embodied in quotes from Luther ("All men possess a calling in the world and the fulfillment of its obligation is a divinely imposed duty") and Calvin ("Disciplined work raises a person above the calling into which he was born and is the only sign of his election by God to salvation"... "The soul is naked before God without Church or communion-religion is a personal matter; worldly success and prosperity are construed as signs of God's approval"). Work was viewed in society as respectable and idleness as deplorable.
Over time, the Protestant Reformation provided an ideological foundation for the modern industrial society by suggesting that work is now a profound moral obligation, a path to eternal salvation. The focus is this world and materialism, not next world. The individual's obligation is self-discipline, and systematic work. It should be clear that the factory system which began to evolve late in the 18th Century could never have flourished without the ideological underpinnings of this profound shift in philosophy as exemplified by the Protestant Ethic.
The basic elements of organizations have remained relatively constant through history: Organizations have purposes (which may be explicit or implicit), attract participants, acquire and allocate resources to accomplish goals, use some form of structure to divide and coordinate activities, organizations have remained relatively constant, their purposes, structures, ways of doing things, and methods for coordinating activities have always varied widely. In order to truly understand organization theory as it exists today, one must appreciate the historical contexts through which it developed and the cultural milieus during and in which important contributions were made to the body of knowledge.
But first definitions: Organizations:--An organization is a social unit created by people responding to conditions, inventing and using ideas, building by communicating.
Management --working through individuals and groups to effectively accomplish organizational goals
Manager- plans, makes decisions, organizes, staffs, leads, motivates, and controls organizational resources
Theory--A theory is a proposition or set of propositions that seek to explain or predict how groups and individuals behave in varying organizational structures. Organizations have sought to develop philosophies to help better manage their business affairs, thus theories arise out of specific historical concerns.
Theory provides causal explanation about phenomena that are perplexing or enigmatic to the human observer; i.e., a cognitive problem, a practical problem
In the natural world, theory sheds causative light on physical occurrences or natural states that require new or greater understanding.
In human services, a theory sheds light on psychological and behavioral events that require new or greater understanding.
Theory offers a perspective or set of lenses through which to view a problem or phenomenon under consideration. It orders perception and organizes cognition, as in Maslow’s hierarchy of need as a framework for viewing motivation.
Theory, then, is a framework for seeing. Every person approaches the world of experience from their own unique set of frameworks or paradigms.
Theory simultaneously enlightens and obscures
--our vision is dominated by our own frameworks, which makes comprehension of alternative frameworks difficult
The truism -- “your stand on an issue depends on where you sit” -- is true
Did Clarence Thomas sexually harass Anita Hill? Was O.J. Simpson really guilty?
Guiding your thinking about alternative courses of action
Conceptualizing and carrying out formal inquiry
From the timeline given, it can be deduced though the term scientific management has been coined fairly recently, the application of scientific management principles has been around a lot longer. But the primary influences in organizations and management today stem from more recent events.
Human Relations Management
Human Resources Management
Organizational Cultures Management
Integrative Approach to Management
Science becomes identified with such concepts as linear causality, determinism, reductionism, and rationality
Frederick the great was one of the first leaders to organize an army according to scientific principles. He inherited an army in Prussia of drunks, criminals, and draftees. Faced with such an army he did the following
Interpret the results objectively, of course
*I will discuss the alternative to positivism/objectivity/modernism in a future lecture.
The Protestant Ethic
As previously mentioned, the Protestant work ethic stressed the belief that hard work makes a person better. All work and no play. Benjamin Franklin, in Poor Richard’s Almanac, wrote about the virtues of hard work and independence. This ethic remains with us in many ways today. Someone who gets up at 5:00 a.m., the first time the alarm goes off, exercises, “gets to work two minutes early, and works hard all day long is considered more “virtuous” than someone who pushes the snooze button.
Classical School of Thought
The Classical school of thought began around 1900 and continued into the 1920s. Traditional or classical management focuses on efficiency and includes bureaucratic, scientific and administrative management. Emerged because of the following conditions: Powered machines, mass production, population growth and faith in science.
Before the Industrial Revolution, people worked in small groups. Several generations of one family, for example, might make a saddle. They made the saddle from beginning to end, from tanning the leather, to tooling and decorating the saddle. This style of work was called craft production.
The Industrial Revolution that started with the development of steam power and the creation of large factories in the late Eighteenth Century lead to great changes in the production of textiles and other products. Inventions such as Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, with their interchangeable parts made it possible to mass produce items. Mass production is a much more efficient and profitable style of production than craft production. It also represented a new type of organization. The factories that evolved, created tremendous challenges to organizations and management that had not been confronted before. People from different parts of the country, were now working together towards common goals. Groups of people working interdependently were responsible for individual aspects of production goals. Managers and factory owners needed to know the best way to accomplish the communication necessary to facilitate this new way of working. Also, managing these new factories and later new entities like railroads with the requirement of managing large flows of material, people, and information over large distances created the need for some methods for dealing with the new management issues. Classical theory addressed this need.
The classical metaphor, that organizations work like machines, led to the expectation that organizations should be set up like machines. Factory owners and subsequently managers made the following assumptions:
Management can be most effective if it devises rules and procedures to govern the way in which the task is to be undertaken.
Management is assumed to be more effective than labor at devising methods for executing the work and then at planning and organizing.
By breaking the work down into simple elements;
The training of workers is clearly simplified, workers are more easily substituted, one for another; supervision is made easier as it is apparent when workers are doing something that is not part of the specified task.
Second Assumption—Workers are rational economic beings. The prime goal is assumed to be monetary and consequently reward systems which relate pay levels to output are seen as likely to result in maximum output. As such, humans will examine a situation and identify a course of action likely to maximize their self interest and act accordingly. All that is required to maximize output, from the organizational perspective, is to hire the right people, train properly and construct an appropriate reward system. If the work can be paced, a worker can develop a natural rhythm and momentum, like a machine.
Classical Assumptions about Communications
1. The boss knows what to do.
2. Employees motivated by $ and security.
3. Function of communication is to give instructions and orders.
4. Communication flows downward.
5. Solutions come from the boss, applying scientific methods.
Impact on Organizational Communication
Information flows slowly downward, with significant distortion. Instructions and orders flow downward fairly well.
Upward and horizontal communication are severely limited.
Employees are motivated to deliver only the minimum performance.
Organizations lack the ready flow of information needed, and lack motivation among employees.
Decision makers lack access to ideas for solutions. Flexibility and productivity suffer.
Scientific management focuses on the "one best way" to do a job and worker and machine relationships. The human relations movement “replaced the existing psycho-physiological model of behavior in work psychology with a socio-emotional one. This paradigm placed an emphasis on attitudes, emotions, internalized motives, and the social environment as mediators of the relationship between work conditions and behavior.
The Classical Management Theory, or machine metaphor, allowed us to understand organizations. The Scientific Management Theory attempted to manipulate organizations.
The scientific theory of management presented several problems. Scientific management assumes that managers think, and workers work. It does not take into account human motivation for working, personal relationships on the job, or the turbulent nature of organizational environments. Dissatisfaction occurs when workers do not feel like their input is valued. Henry Ford’s automobile plant maintained an average 380% turnover under scientific management. Frederick Taylor thought he was helping the average employee with his time and motion studies. He assumed that people wanted to work at optimal levels of productivity all of the time.
Yet, by the end of his life, he was cursed by labor unions, as “the enemy of the working man.” Just because it was possible for someone to shovel coal at a specific rate, all day, every day, doesn’t mean they were going to be willing and able to do it realistically. The “organization as a machine” broke down when applied to individual workers.
Some organizations continue to run on scientific principles today. The military is a prime example of an organization that relies on scientific management to be effective. In a battle situation, you need to know that the soldier next to you will respond exactly the `same as everyone else, and that they will respond exactly the same as everyone else, and that they will follow whatever orders are given. In the military, strategists think, and soldiers work.
In the fast food industry, scientific management allows for efficiency and consistency. Not much choice needs to be involved on the worker’s part when it comes to assembling a cheeseburger. High turnover rate here, too. The airline industry also follows the scientific principals of management.
Frank (1868-1924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth emphasized method by focusing on identifying the elemental motions in work, the way these motions were combined to form methods of operation, and the basic time each motion took. They believed it was possible to design work methods whose times could be estimated in advance, rather than relying upon observation-based time studies. Frank Gilbreth, known as the Father of Time and Motion Studies, filmed individual physical labor movements. This enabled the manager to break down a job into its component parts and streamline the process. His wife, Lillian Gilbreth, was a psychologist and author of The Psychology of Work. In 1911 Frank Gilbreth wrote Motion Study and in 1919 the couple wrote Applied Motion Study. Frank and Lillian had 12 children. Two of their children, Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Careyone, wrote their story, Cheaper by the Dozen.
Classical Assumptions about Communication
Bureaucratic management relies on a rational set of structuring guidelines, such as rules and procedures, hierarchy, and a clear division of labor.
2. Division of labor based on functional specializations built into the worker
The Organizational Chart
Another change the Industrial Revolution brought about was the concept of hierarchy or the corporate ladder that arose from the division of labor. Hierarchy refers to the vertical arrangement of power and authority that sets up status differences; i.e., organizational charts. An organizational chart delineates the power structure in an organization.
One author has called it “An X-Ray of an organization”. Organization charts provide the necessary management control in organizations to ensure that work got done. Coordinating the activities of hundreds or thousand of people in an organization is not easy.
However, organizational charts assumes a passive worker, with nothing to communicate. Organizational charts discourage upward and horizontal communication or feedback. (Remember organizational charts were invented before the days of “teamwork” and “empowerment” became popular. All of the layers of bureaucracy delineated in an organizational chart restricted communication flow, which resulted in taking more time to get decisions made, and things accomplished.
Administrative management emphasizes the flow of information in the operation of the organization and emphasizes the manager and the functions of management. Henri Fayol (1841--1925), known as the Father of Modern Management, was a French industrialist who developed a framework for studying management. He wrote General and Industrial Management. His five functions of managers were plan, organize, command, coordinate, and control. His fourteen principles of management included division of work, authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to general interests, remuneration of personnel, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, and esprit de corps (union is strength).
Mary Parker Follett's concepts included the universal goal, the universal principle, and the Law of the Situation. The universal goal of organizations is an integration of individual effort into a synergistic whole. The universal principle is a circular or reciprocal response emphasizing feedback to the sender (the concept of two-way communications). Law of the Situation emphasizes that there is no one best way to do anything, but that it all depends on the situation.
Simon relied on recent psychological and sociological currents to observe that there are limits in the ability of organizational members to make fully rational decisions.
rationality is defined as goal oriented means
The 1930’s were one of the world’s worst economic periods to date. It is no coincidence that at this time old management theories were questioned. We will explore three major developments from scientific/classical theory to a more human/individual approach:
The Great Depression
World War II
Out of the hardships of the Great Depression arose changes in the status quo. The Great Depression (1929—1940) created economic and social hardships for millions of Americans. However, it also contributed to major governmental changes, such as the creation of social security, welfare and public works. Many workers, hoping for relief from poverty, migrated to Northern and Southern California, hoping to find jobs. (Think The Grapes of Wrath.)
The surplus of available workers caused by The Depression led to abuses. In response, powerful labor unions were created and supported.
World War II brought the American economy out of the depression, and led to sweeping changes in the way organizations communicated.
World War II led to the creation of jobs, and contributed to the development of the Human Relations Approach through the formation of the Redding Triple Alliance. For the first time, a great deal of money and research went into answering the question, “What is the best way to motivate a group of individuals towards a common goal.”
The government was extremely interested in developing an effective war machine. So, the military formed alliances with education and industry to answer the question, “How do people work together.” This led to direct communication and borrowing of ideas between organizations.
Symbolic Interactionism was a revolutionary alternative to Behaviorism. It represented a move from a scientific metaphor to a more humanistic approach. Behaviorism taught that you could program an animal to respond a certain way to a stimulus, but it didn’t take into account that humans aren’t like other animals. Symbolic Interactionism gave power to individuals to interpret and process the stimulus, and decide not only how to respond, but whether or not they would respond at all. Symbolic Interactionism gives much more power to the individual since it assumes an active thinker, rather than a passive animal.
Behavioral or human relations management emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects of organizations. It has been referred to as the neoclassical school because it was initially a reaction to the shortcomings of the classical approaches to management. The human relations movement began with the Hawthorne Studies which were conducted from 1924 to 1933 at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company in Cicero, Illinois. Without much doubt, the father of the "human relations" movement, a.k.a the "social man" era, "democratic management", or "participative management" is Elton Mayo (1880-1949), a Harvard professor trained in psychopathology.
We tend to get what we evaluate, which is to say that people who
Mayo stated that the reason workers are motivated by such things is that individuals have a deep psychological need to believe that their organization cares about them, is open, concerned, and willing to listen. The sociological implications are that the human dimensions of work (group relations) exert a tremendous influence on behavior, overriding the organizational norms and even the individual's own self-interests. The discoveries of "social capacity", "informal work groups", and "employee-centered management" were nothing short of revolutionary for administrative thought.
The "Cult of Mayoism" became the predominant management philosophy in its day, as administrators everywhere sought to re-train their supervisors to play the role that Mayo's assistants played. This led to the establishment of "management retreats" where managers engaged in Rogerian therapies, Maslowian therapies, sensitivity training, Parent-Adult-Child training, and other forms of group dynamics to become more employee-centered.
· work is a group activity
· informal, primary groups were discovered
· group norms exist
· groups exert strong influence over individuals
· management must recognize the need for group co operation because it can lead to productivity gains
· co operation could be elicited through the special attention of supervisors
· emphasized the importance of managers possessing counseling skills as well as skills in control and planning and most importantly
· productivity increases because of social factors.
Evaluation of the studies
Methodological problems such as selection of groups where there was no sampling, the fact that control groups were not routinely established and management bias were inherent to the Hawthorne studies.
Impact of the studies
The key impacts of the studies were:
· they represented a shift from the notion of 'economic man' to that of 'social man'
· they stressed the importance and complexity of human factors in organizations
· they recognized the importance of harmony, arguing that conflict was dysfunctional
· they recognized the 'Hawthorne effect'
· they recognized the importance of leadership and supervisory development due to its impact on productivity
· they emphasized the 'medical approach'.
Some Basic Ideas Of Mayoism
1. Supervisors should not act like supervisors - they should be friends, counselors to the workers
2. Managers should not try to micro-manage the organization by an overriding concern for product or job quality at the expense of the macro-social, or humanistic, characteristics of work
Evaluation of the studies
3. People should be periodically asked how they feel about the work, their supervisors, and co-workers
4. Humanistic supervision plus morale equals productivity
5. Those who don't respond to group influence should be treated with sarcasm
6. Workers should be involved or at least consulted before any change in the organization
7. Employees who leave should be exit-interviewed - turnover should be kept to a minimum
Criticisms Of Mayoism
Mayoism was criticized on several grounds, most of which revolved around
the charge it was "Cow psychology" (Contented Cows Give More Milk). It was a bit too idealistic in trying to remove any form of conflict from the organization, a bit too evangelistic in trying to save the world, and it excused much immaturity and irresponsibility among the workers. Two of the harshest CRITICS were March & Simon (1958) Organizations NY: John Wiley and Charles Lindblom (1959) "The Science of Muddling Through" Public Administration Review 19: 79-88.
March & Simon (1958) called Mayoism the "garbage-can model" of decision-making because it was basically irrational and seemed to offer a garbage can full of easy answers. March & Simon themselves were critics of perfect rationality, and gave us such terms as "bounded rationality" and "satisfycing" to explain the kinds of things managers have to settle for. In criminal justice, for example, we often have to settle for less than individualized justice (a policy to not investigate crimes involving less than $1000 in property) because of the need to satisfice the demands between goals of the organization and efficient uses of human power.
Selected Followers Of Mayoism
Keith Davis (1940s & 1950s) was a human relations specialist ("Mr. Human Relations") who tried to apply Mayoism to law enforcement agencies by preaching about such things as job enlargement and job enrichment which only had the effect of generating public interest in policing as a career.
Chris Argyris (~1957) was a social science researcher who advocated a type of participant-observation research based on Hawthorne Effect-like principles, i.e., involving your research subjects in designing the way in which survey questions are worded and how concepts should be operationally defined and measured. He founded a management theory called "Immaturity-Maturity Theory" which is based on an organic model of organizations as living, happy beings, and requiring managers to be babysitters at times and reality therapists at other times.
Fred Herzberg (~1959) founded "Motivation-Hygiene Theory" which is based on 5 types of "satisfiers" and 5 types of "dissatisfiers" in organizations, with hygiene factors being the dissatisfiers and motivators being the satisfiers. People, in their attribution style, are either hygiene-seekers or motivator-seekers, in which case they are driven by changes in job context or job content, respectively. Hygiene-seekers let the organization down when their talents are most needed. Perhaps the following chart will help to explain a complicated theory:
Hygiene Seekers: Primarily dissatisfied by:
1. company policy and administration
4. interpersonal relations
5. working conditions
A. motivated by job context - the environment of the job
B. will overreact to improvements in hygiene factors (short-term "shot-in-the-arm" boost) but will also overreact when hygiene factors not improved.
C. usually a talented but cynical individual who mocks the company philosophy and top management
D. realizes little satisfaction from achievements, and shows little interest in the kind of work done
Primarily satisfied by:
3. the work itself
A. motivated by job content - the nature of the task
B. doesn't overreact to changes in hygiene factors, and also has short durations of satisfaction, but milder periods of dissatisfaction
C. usually an overachiever who has positive feelings toward work and life in general
D. profits professionally from accomplishments, and takes details of tasks seriously
When Chester Bernard retired as the CEO of New Jersey Bell Telephone, he recorded his insights about management in his book, Functions of the Executive. It outlined the legitimacy of the supervisor’s directives and the extent of the subordinates’ acceptance. He developed the concepts of strategic planning and the acceptance theory of authority. Strategic planning is the formulation of major plans or strategies, which guide the organization in pursuit of major plans or strategies, which guide the organization in pursuit of major objectives. Bernard taught that the three top functions of the executive were to (1) establish and maintain an effective communication system, (2) hire and retain effective personnel, and (3) motivate those personnel. His Acceptance Theory of Authority states that managers only have as much authority as employees allow them to have. The acceptance theory of authority suggests that authority flows downward but depends on acceptance by the subordinate. Acceptance of authority depends on four conditions: (1) Employees must understand what the manager wants them to do. (2) Employees must be able to comply with the directives. (3) Employees must think that the directives is in keeping with organizational objectives and (4) Employees must think that the directive is not contrary to their personal goals. Bernard believed that each person has a zone of indifference or a range within each individual in which he or she would willingly accept orders without consciously questioning authority. It was up to the organization to provide sufficient inducements to broaden each employees zone of indifference so that the manager’s orders would be obeyed.
Researchers within the Human Relations School were concerned with:
· productivity based on motivation
· job satisfaction
· cooperation between supervisors and workers and
developing the social and technical skills of managers
In short, the human relations concepts include:
· employees are essentially social rather than economic beings with a variety of needs
· informal work groups influence employee performance
· mutual trust must exist between managers and workers
· money is an incomplete motivator and
· both the formal and informal organization influence employee behavior.
Human Relations Assumptions About Communication
1. Boss designs communication system.
2. Boss knows the abstract, general; middle management knows the concrete.
3. Communication includes friendly relationships with and among employees.
4. Communication must flow down, up, & across.
5. General answers come from the top; specific answers come from the middle; workers listen and do their jobs.
Human Resources School
Conditions Leading to Human Resources Approach
Increased technological and economic complexity
Increased competition, for both business and competent employees
Increased understanding of human psychology
Some Key HR Theorists
B. F. Skinner
Blake & Mouton
Key theorists included:
· Maslow: Hierarchy of needs and
· McGregor: Managerial assumptions and motivation.
Behavioral science approaches build on human relations approaches by emphasizing scientific research as the basis for developing theories about human behavior in organizations.
Theory X rests on four assumptions
The average employee values creativity and seeks opportunities to be creative at work.
Rensis Likert (1961) is famous for his continuum research scales, so-called "Likert scales" in social science research, such as /------strongly agree----agree----disagree-----strongly disagree-----/, and also for a number of studies into leadership, called the "University of Michigan studies". In general, he advocated more employee-oriented leadership and supportive management.
Beginning in the early 1950s, the human resources school represented a substantial progression from human relations. The behavioral approach did not always increase productivity. Thus, motivation and leadership techniques became a topic of great interest. The human resources school understands that employees are very creative and competent, and that much of their talent is largely untapped by their employers. Employees want meaningful work; they want to contribute; they want to participate in decision making and leadership functions.
Work psychology, as an independent academic discipline, emerged in the late nineteenth century. Interestingly, the negative effects of the industrial engineer Frederick Taylor's "scientific management" unwittingly created a niche, one which work psychology would fill. Taylor's focus on work efficiency, work standardization, and the control of employee initiative and autonomy, led to hostility and conflict between management and employees. Work psychology emerged to find ways to mitigate these problems while maintaining the objectives of scientific management. In this way, Taylor shaped much of the content of early work psychology as well as the techniques used to investigate these issues.
The outbreak of World War I created a new niche that widened the areas of concern to work psychologists. In the early war years, psychologists developed knowledge and practice in the areas of assessment, selection, and training. Later, the Health of Munitions Workers Committee in Britain initiated research into the relationship of fatigue and health with productivity. Recognition of shift work, shift duration, and environmental features of work as causes of accidents emerged as a result of this research endeavor.
In his Lectures on Industrial Psychology (1917), Australian Bernard Muscio argued that injury rates, health, and productivity should be managed by increasing worker discretion and using more effective work practices rather than working people harder and longer. These challenges to Taylorism continued, becoming more prominent after the war. In particular, psychologists argued that people should not be treated like machines because the antecedents to the productivity of people were differentiated from the antecedents to productivity of machines by mental and physical factors.
Furthermore, psychologists identified individual differences in these mental and physical factors as important considerations in productivity management. Work psychology was now arguing that productivity should be managed by changing the processes and settings of work, a significant philosophical shift from Taylor's focus on changing the worker to fit job characteristics. The theory and research arising from this new philosophy contributed to the emergence and development of the fields of ergonomics and human factors.
The identification of individual differences as important considerations in worker productivity stimulated research in the area. Psychometric assessment, as a dominant practice in work psychology since its inception, shaped much of the research undertaken. Differences, especially in personality, that predicted the injury rates of individuals were sought out. The identification of such factors (e.g., accident proneness) provided the impetus to shift the responsibility of accidents away from the characteristics of work processes and conditions to the individual worker. Consequently, good management of health and productivity was said to rely on assessment, selection, training, and the control of physical working conditions. The focus on individual behavior and dispositions resulted in studies examining the relationship of individual characteristics with injury, which frequently excluded simultaneous investigation of situational and environmental factors. In the absence of considering the latter, research was amassed which identified individual characteristics as the primary cause of injury.
World War II led to a widespread resurgence in research activities aimed at developing new areas and methods for psychometric assessment. Vocational guidance and rehabilitation services emerged in response to the needs of returning service men and women.
In the postwar period, engineering psychology expanded as a field, contributing to the understanding of the interfaces between humans and machines and between humans and the physical environment. This discipline, which is a foundational cornerstone of ergonomics, seeks to identify ways of modifying the work environment that increase its compatibility with human characteristics.
In addition, in the postwar period, organizational psychology emerged as a sub-field of work psychology, which previously comprised only the field of industrial psychology. Organizational psychology maintains a human relations paradigm, evoking individual, group, and social explanations of organizational outcomes. In keeping with the human relations paradigm, organizational psychology ignores "structural and intractable conflicts of interest between management and workers" and views ill health and injury as the result of "the social or psychological maladjustment of individual workers."
Another important development in the postwar period was the development of the socio-technical model by the Tavistock Institute in the United Kingdom. Fred Emery, an Australian, was a leader in this movement, which aims to simultaneously optimize social and technical processes. This approach, which laid the foundation for the Quality of Working Life Movement, redirected attention to "organizational and environmental sources of ill health and injury." The approach, however, fails to recognize the role of organizational and industrial power structures in shaping working conditions.
In recent history, occupational health and safety management has been significantly influenced by advances in stress research and the emergence of health psychology as a discipline. Health psychology represents a major departure in perspectives on health at work. In particular, it recognizes the role of community, incorporates behavior modification techniques, and it reframes interventionist approaches as aiming to promote and maintain health rather than to treat ill health. The approach, however, relies on individual responsibility and control over the factors influencing health.
Key Characteristics of HR Approach
Built upon both Classical & Human Relations
Viewed people as the primary resource ("human resources")
Primary objective was to improve productivity
Both tasks and resources must be well managed
Strategy: match individual & organizational goals
Key Metaphor: Team Winning team, teamwork, team players)
HR Assumptions About Communication
Communication in organizations is multi-purposeful
Communication is multidirectional and interactive
Knowledge (and talent) is distributed throughout the organization
Human motivation is varied and complex
Communication (like management) must dually focus on both tasks and
Evolution can be traced from scientific management, through the human relations movement, to the human resource approach.
The assumptions of scientific management were that work is inherently unpleasant for most people and the money they earn is more important to employees than is the nature of the job they are performing.
Human relations movement:
This school of thought emphasized the role of social processes in organizations and assumed that the need for belongingness and the need to feel useful are more important than money in motivating employees.
Human resource approach:
This view assumes that people want to contribute to organizational effectiveness and are able to make genuine contributions. The organization's responsibility is to create a work environment that makes full use of available human resources.
The human resource approach guides most thinking about motivation today, but three integrative approaches conceptualize motivation more completely: need-based, process-based, and reinforcement-based approaches.
Complex man: (Sexist but actual title of theory)
We have looked at people from economic, social and self-actualizing stand-points
All of these approaches may be considered too simplistic
No single management style can succeed in improving the performance of all workers
The motives of an individual may be extremely complex, and liable to change over time
A high level of satisfaction does not necessarily lead to increased productivity (or the other way round?)
Need-Based Approaches To Motivation
Need-based approaches to motivation focus on what motivates employees to choose certain behaviors as shown on the following diagram.
Two need-based approaches are need hierarchies and the dual-structure approach.
Two of the most popular need hierarchies are Abraham Maslow's hierarchy and Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory of motivation.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs assumes that people are motivated to satisfy five levels of needs:
The hierarchical arrangement suggests that the five levels of needs are arranged in order of increasing importance, starting with physiological needs. According to the theory, when needs at one level are satisfied, they are no longer motivators and the individual "moves up" the hierarchy to satisfy needs at the next level. Maslow's view of motivation provides a logical framework for categorizing needs, but it does not supply a complete picture.
Alderfer developed the ERG theory of motivation in response to criticisms of Maslow's hierarchy.
ERG stands for existence, relatedness, and growth needs ERG theory. Existence needs are satisfied by food and water pay fringe benefits and working conditions. Relatedness needs are satisfied by relationships with co workers, superiors family and friends. Growth needs cover the need to advance and develop.
As with Maslow's theory, assumes that motivated behavior follows a hierarchy, but it has two important differences:
ERG theory suggests that more than one level of needs can cause motivation at the same time; ERG theory has a frustration-regression element that suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some high level, the individual will become frustrated, regress to a lower level, and begin to pursue lower-level needs again.
The Dual-Structure Approach To Motivation.
The dual-structure approach was developed by Frederick Herzberg and is often referred to as the two-factor theory. Herzberg described six characteristics of psychological growth in relation to work as follows:
Process-Based Approaches To Motivation
These approaches to motivation are concerned with how motivation takes place. They focus on why people choose certain behavioral options to fulfill their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals. Two useful process-based approaches are expectancy theory and equity theory.
Two researchers, Nadler and Lawler suggest how managers can apply the basic ideas of expectancy theory. Managers should first determine the outcomes each employee is likely to want. Then they should decide what kinds and levels of performance are needed to meet organizational goals, making sure that the desired levels of performance are attainable. Managers then need to ensure that desired outcomes and desired performance are linked. Finally, the rewards need to be large enough, and the total system needs to be equitable.
Equity theory, developed by J. Stacy Adams, suggests that once an individual has chosen an action that is expected to satisfy his or her needs, the individual assesses the equity or fairness of the outcome. Equity is an individual's beliefs that he or she is being treated fairly relative to the treatment of others.
Three attitudes are possible: an individual may feel equitably rewarded, under rewarded, or over rewarded. When individuals feel under rewarded or over rewarded, they will do something to reduce the inequity. The single most important thing to remember about equity theory is that if rewards are to motivate employees, they must be perceived as being equitable and fair.
Reinforcement-Based Approaches To Motivation
These approaches to motivation explain the role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or remain the same. Behavior that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated.
Expectancy theory and reinforcement theory are similar in that both consider the processes by which an individual chooses behaviors in a particular situation. However, expectancy theory focuses more on behavior choices, and reinforcement theory focuses more on the consequences of those choices.
Other Approaches To Motivation In Organizations
Goal Setting Theory
This approach suggests that managers and subordinates should set goals for the individual on a regular basis and that rewards should be tied to the accomplishment of goals. Research support for goal-setting theory is more consistently favorable than any other single approach to employee motivation.
The Japanese Approach To Motivation.
The Japanese approach is not a theory or model but a philosophy of management. The basic tenet is that managers and workers should come together as partners - as one group.
Integrating the Management Theories
Systems theory and a contingency view can help integrate the theories of management. Appropriate managerial techniques can be applied as required by environmental conditions. A broad perspective is valuable to managers when overseeing one unit or the total integration of all subunits.
During the 1940s and World War II, systems analysis emerged. This viewpoint uses systems concepts and quantitative approaches from mathematics, statistics, engineering, and other related fields to solve problems. Managers find optimal solutions to management problems by using scientific analysis which is closely associated with the systems approach to management. A system is an interrelated and interdependent set of elements functioning as a whole. It is an open system that interacts with its environment. It is composed of inputs from the environment (material or human resources), transformation processes of inputs to finished goods (technological and managerial processes), outputs of those finished goods into the environment (products or services), and feedback (reactions from the environment). Subsystems are systems within a broader system. Interdependent subsystems (such as production, finance, and human resources) work toward synergy in an attempt to accomplish an organizational goal that could not otherwise be accomplished by a single subsystem. Systems develop synergy. This is a condition in which the combined and coordinated actions of the parts of a system achieve more than all the parts could have achieved acting independently.
According to systems theory, any change in one part of the system will affect the rest of the system.
Feedback: Organizations are open systems, which rely on their environments. They require a great deal of input, in the form of feedback to survive. Systems are interdependent collections of processes that interact over time. Any response from outside of the system closes the loop back to the communicators, and provides them with information about how they were received. Feedback serves as a control device on systems of communication, regulating the flow and interpretation of messages.
There are two types of feedback, Morphostatis and Morphogenesis.
Morphostasis is corrective or deviation-counteracting feedback. Stasis is about staying the same, or “static”. Therefore, Morphostatic feedback is feedback that tries to put things back the way they were (or the way they should have been). In an organization, an evaluation or performance review offers an opportunity for morphostatic feedback. The purpose of this type of feedback is to reestablish proper quality levels that were decided on as goals for the product or service. This is also known as cybernetics.
Morphogenesis is growth, or deviation-amplifying feedback. It identifies new avenues of growth and development. Genesis is about creating something new. Morphogenesis is about creating new ways of doing things. In organizations, when an ad-hoc committee or team recommends a new way of achieving organizational goals, or proposes a new organizational action, they are presenting deviation-amplifying feedback.
Organizations do not exist as entities isolated from the rest of the world; they are located in environments. Without interaction with their environments, organizations will fail. Entropy is the gradual breakdown of a system or organism. All systems naturally tend towards entropy, and constant stimulation is required to fight this decline.
Increased awareness of environmental interdependence
Increased awareness of harm by organizations to physical and social
Increased technological and economic complexity
New focus on quality
Key Systems Theorists
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy
Daniel Katz & Robert Kahn
W. Edwards Deming
Key Systems Metaphors: Organism
Key Systems Concepts
Organizations are systems of interacting systems
Input -- Thru-put --- Output
Systems Assumptions About Communication
Communication is constant process
Knowledge, information is distributed throughout the organization
Living systems (by nature) create solutions
In the mid-1960s, the contingency view of management or situational approach emerged. This view emphasizes the fit between organization processes and the characteristics of the situation. It calls for fitting the structure of the organization to various possible or chance events. It questions the use of universal management practices and advocates using traditional, behavioral, and systems viewpoints independently or in combination to deal with various circumstances.
The contingency approach assumes that managerial behavior is dependent on a wide variety of elements. Thus, it provides a framework for integrating the knowledge of management thought.
Cultural Theory: E.H. Schein
The cultural metaphor focuses mainly on the language of the workplace. It also focuses on the routine and dramatic performance of managers and employees, and the shared practices that make an organization unique. These practices include: rites, rituals and artifacts.
The study of organizational culture is mainly the study of symbols. To study organizational culture, you must study the organization as a symbol. Organizations use symbols as well. The cultural approach to management requires interpretation of the meanings of the symbols. We use language to interpret and organize symbols.
Primarily the cultural approach is an alternative to scientific management, and a backlash against domination.
The memory of the Depression was alive and well just after World War II/ But America had newfound wealth and power as a world leader. The economy peaked in Cold War America, but so did the threat of atomic war. Science and Industry demonstrated that they could do great things (like cure illness and create home appliances) but they also demonstrated that they could abuse the environment and individuals for money. At the same time, the technologies made available in Marshall McLuhan’s “global village” made news more available, and resulted in more skeptical consumers of news. The tension created by these opposing influences on the U.S. and the rest of the world shaped the culture of a new generation.
In the late 50’s and 60’s, women and minorities protested against unfair social and professional practices, such as race and sex discrimination. The mid-60’s marked the end of the period of Western Colonialism, as well. These developments arose out of a resistance to domination. With the end of Western Colonialism, and the social status quo came a change in the language used to analyze organizations.
The development of multinational corporations increasingly demanded an appreciation for the cultures of other countries, particularly third world countries. Anti-discrimination forces in the workplace also required increased understanding of the differences between employees of different genders and ethnic or religious backgrounds. The new model for the management of differences would be cooperation, not domination. The cultural approach to organizations and communications required finding ways to improve cross-cultural communication and understanding.
Emerging Management Positions
New management viewpoints are emerging. Quality management emphasizes achieving customer satisfaction by providing high quality goods and services. Reengineering the organization redesigns the processes that are crucial to customer satisfaction.
Chaos models the corporation as a complex adaptive system that interacts and evolves with its surroundings. Many seemingly random movements in nature exhibit structured patterns. Living systems operate at their most robust and efficient level in the narrow space between stability and disorder -- poised at "the edge of chaos." It is here that the agents within a system conduct the fullest range of productive interactions and exchange the greatest amount of useful information.
n Employees were generally resistant to this change
Authorizing employees to do their work without the need to seek approval from supervisors
gives a sense of responsibility and achievement to employee
reduces delays in flow of work
reduces work-load on manager
Used widely in Business Process Reengineering projects
Management fundamentals: Peter Drucker, 1960s and
Setting objectives for staff, and assessing achievement
Managing in turbulent times
Preparing to deal with sudden changes and take advantage of new situations
W.S. Ouchi, 1980s
Ouchi compares/contrasts American and Japanese firms. Theory Z is a hybrid based on the two. Theory Z organizations integrate individual achievement and advancement, but are dedicated to developing a sense of community in the workplace. Well managed companies in US and Japan had lifetime employment, collective decision making, promotion from within, non-specialized career paths. Characterized as a "democratic" management style
An American rowing team challenged a Japanese team to a 10-mile race
The Japanese wins by more than a mile.
A management consultant is called in to help the Americans. He finds that the Japanese boat had two people overseeing six rowers, while the Americans had seven managers and one rower. The consultant suggests a radical reengineering program, then calls for a rematch.
This time the Japanese team defeats the Americans by two miles. More consultants are called in. They find that the Japanese team were now using one manager and seven
rowers, while the U.S. team employed six management consultants, one senior manager and one rower.
The U.S. team immediately fires the rower and calls for another restructuring.
...in stark contrast, the image of organization requires a causal chain in organizational structure and processes
3.Subunits can respond to pressure while the organization remains stable, breakdowns can be isolated, change is symbolic to reduce pressure, signals of impending failure go unnoticed, incompetence is isolated from attention
Fluid Participation: Participation in organizational processes varies in membership, time, and energy devoted from time to time
In some organizations, some of the time, in sub-divisions or ad hoc units, authority resides in the collectivity; social controls, relations, and organizational rewards are primarily personalistic; the status structure may be egalitarian
5. Power is the ability to contribute incentives to others
The Learning Organization
The concept of the learning organization and organizational learning was introduced in 1963 by Cyert and March. Theorists explained on the idea of "adaptive learning" to explore "proactive learning." (Argyis and Schoen 1978.) They and others argued that organizations learn through their organizational members who detect and correct errors in the work of the organization. Karl Weick elaborates on "a more radical approach would take the position that individual learning occurs when people give a different response to the same stimulus, but Organizational Learning occurs when groups of people give the same response to different stimuli." It was, however, Peter Senge's book, The Fifth Discipline, that introduced organizational learning and systems thinking to the popular management literature. Senge considers "systems thinking" the key component to organizational learning because:
This is why system thinking is the fifth discipline. It
is the discipline that integrates the disciplines,
fusing them into a coherent body of theory and
practice....Without a systematic orientation, there
is no motivation to look at how the disciplines
interrelate. By enhancing each of the other
disciplines, it continually reminds us that the
whole can excess the sum of its parts. (Senge,
The learning organization is an organization dedicated to continually improving its ability to create, according to Senge. Most people confuse learning with taking in information, a passive activity that simply enables us to repeat back what a teacher told us. For Senge, learning is about “creating the capacity to create that which you previously couldn’t create.” Senge believes that organizations of the future will be devoted to learning-oriented rather than controlling behavior, and to learning how to create new products and services in new and better ways.
Leaders and Managers
Since the latter part of the 80’s and up to the present, we continue to use a team approach to management. Even though we work in teams, we must have leaders.
Leadership defined: A multidimensional set of communication behaviors as exhibited by individuals to exert interpersonal influence in an extensive array of organizational situations. The common purpose of leaders include the following;
To get everybody going in the same direction
To provide an overall vision for where the group or organization is heading
To set the agenda, dealing with both the strategy and tactics, the long term vision and the day to day implementation of things in order to achieve the overall goal of the organization.
The goals of leadership are to set the direction for organizations, while the goals of. Management are to accomplish set organizational tasks. Leaders, set the vision, they develop and promote the strategy for the overall long term organizational goals. Managers are there to make sure that incremental, sort term, tactical stuff gets done and fulfills the overall organizational goals.
There are distinct personality differences between leaders and managers. Managers rationally assess organizational tasks and develop strategies to accomplish these tasks, while leaders, must be visionaries who are intuitively able to interpret environmental conditions, predict future conditions, and chart a creative course for organizational activities. The leader is interested in direction and innovation, while the manager is interested in order and efficiency.
There is a need for both leaders and managers in organizations. The best executives are adept in both roles. They are able to see the larger picture of organizational life and are directing the organization accordingly. And they are able to see the smaller picture of organizational life and coordinate organizational processes.
Leaders should reflect the following guidelines:
In Managing Change: Learning, Motivation, Risk-taking, and Innovation,
Warren Bennis observes that, "American organizational life is a left-brain culture, meaning logical analytical, technical, controlled, conservative, and administrative...In any corporation, managers serve as the left brain and the research and development staff serves as the right brain, but the CEO must combine both... (1989, 102). The culture of an organization is the key to patterns of learning, motivation, risk-taking, and innovation: all necessary ingredients of change. As either a manager or leader or employee, an individual must learn to live with and manage change.
Two things seemed pretty apparent to me. One
was, that in order to be a [Mississippi River] pilot
a man had got to learn more than any one man
ought to be allowed to know; and the other was,
that he must learn it all over again in a different
way every 24 hours. (Mark Twain, Life on the
This concludes my third lecture. You may e-mail me your response to the following question:
Management... is a discipline, or at least is capable of becoming one. It is not just common sense. It is not just codified experience. It is at least potentially an organized body of knowledge... While management is a discipline --that is, an organized body of knowledge and as such applicable everywhere -- it is also 'culture.' It is not a value-free science. Management is a social function and embedded in a culture – a society -- a tradition of values, customs and beliefs, and in governmental and political systems. Management is -- and should be -- culture conditioned; but, in turn, management and managers shape culture and society. (Drucker, 1973, p. xii.)
Discuss how organizations, management and managers shape culture and society. Use historical examples as well as current examples.